ПРАКТИЧНИЙ КУРС АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ МОВИ Навчальний посібник з практики усного та письмового мовлення для студентів 4 курсу


НазваПРАКТИЧНИЙ КУРС АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ МОВИ Навчальний посібник з практики усного та письмового мовлення для студентів 4 курсу
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PART 6 COMPREHENSION CHECK

6.1 Test yourself

Variant 1

  1. Translate into English.



    промислово розвинена і постіндустріальна ( що базується на сферах послуг і інформаційних технологій) економіка вільної конкуренції



    рентабельний, прибутковий бізнес



    розподіл; роздача



    соціальна служба; соціальне обслуговування; надання соціальних послуг; соціальне забезпечення



    споживання; витрата, витрати, витрата , сфера споживання



    теорія цін чи мікроекономіка



    тимчасове, сумнівне процвітання; проспериті і спад, депресія, економічна криза



    товари і послуги



    фірми, що надають побутові послуги



    фонди

  2. Translate into Ukrainian.

  1. inadequate aggregate demand

  1. nongovernmental service providers

  1. nonprofits

  1. exchange

  1. to be determined by competition

  1. business enterprises

  1. to cover their operating costs

  1. seeking a cure for unemployment

  1. luxuries

  1. revenues that exceed the costs

3. Fill in the gaps with a vocabulary phrase that best fits the meaning of each sentence.

  1. Business is the organized approach to providing customers with ______________________ they want.

  2. Examples of _______________________ include such organizations as social service agencies, foundations, advocacy groups, and many hospitals.

  3. Business plays a vital role in the life and culture of countries with industrial and postindustrial (____________________________) free-market economies such as in the United States.

  4. In free-market systems, prices and wages are primarily determined by __________________________ governments.

  5. Businesses provide just about anything consumers want or need, including _____________________ such as food and housing, luxuries such as whirlpool baths and wide-screen televisions, and even personal services such as caring for children and finding companionship.

  6. After the devastation of World War II, a substantial rebuilding boom, combined with _____________________ from the U.S., generated rapid growth in Western Europe and Japan.

  7. OPEC's policies dramatically reduced the possibilities of _____________________both in the industrialized countries and in those developing nations without oil of their own.

4. Make a literary translation into English.

a) Poor nations desperately need aid from the rich nations in the form of capital and of technological and organizational expertise. They also need easy access to the markets of the industrialized nations for their manufactures and raw materials. However, the political capacity of rich nations to respond to these needs depends greatly on their own success in coping with inflation, unemployment, and lagging growth rates. In democratic communities, it is exceedingly difficult to generate public support for assistance to foreign countries when average wage earners are themselves under serious financial pressure. It is no easier politically to permit cheap foreign merchandise and materials to freely enter American and European markets when they are viewed as the cause of unemployment among domestic workers.

b) There are so many more rich people in Moscow—they are uniformly referred to as New Russians, or the New Rich—that Volvos no longer seem worth stealing. In 1997 more of the most expensive models of Mercedes-Benz were sold in Moscow than in any other city in the world. The riches accumulated by a few thousand people—through an odd combination of cronyism, hard work, and blatant theft—have astonished nearly everyone who has seen them, spawning envy, fascination, and, naturally, some bitterness.

Variant 2

  1. Translate into English.

    1. загальний обсяг попиту

    1. закон попиту та пропозиції

    1. засоби першої необхідності

    1. збільшити рентабельність до максимальної межі

    1. збільшувати безробіття

    1. конкурентний ринок ( ринок конкуруючих продавців і покупців )

    1. макроекономіка

    1. масиви цін, ставок заробітної плати, розмірів прибутку, орендної плати

    1. намагатися досягти раціональними способами

    1. національний доход і безробіття

  2. Translate into Ukrainian.

  1. aggregate consumer demand

  1. larger budget deficits

  1. to make a profit

  1. production

  1. extract profit

  1. to play a vital role

  1. advocacy groups

  1. economics

  1. economic objective

  1. to provide just about anything consumers want or need

3. Fill in the gaps with a vocabulary phrase that best fits the meaning of each sentence.

  1. By 2000 , however, inflation was significantly reduced and reforms toward a system based on ________________________were accelerated.

  2. The value of Ukraine's _______________________(GDP) in 1998 was $43.6 billion.

  3. Some 40 percent of workers are employed in industry, 40 percent in the _____________________, and 20 percent in agriculture.

  4. Unemployment is rising steadily, especially in the form of _____________________ , which includes people who have been kept on payrolls but have not been paid salaries.

  5. Although official data reported an _______________________ of only 1.6 percent in 1996, the minister of labor acknowledged an actual rate of more than 11 percent.

  6. Products of relatively poor quality and ________________________ obstruct entry into the global market, while the increasing cost of the energy needed to power industry makes many items too expensive to produce.

  7. Most of Ukraine's electricity (48 percent in 1998) is supplied by _______________ power stations.

4. Make a literary translation into English.

a) Seeking to overcome a legacy of inefficiency and mismanagement, the post-Communist nations found themselves competing with Third World countries for investment capital and technological assistance.

Opinions differ as to how long sustained economic growth can continue. Optimists pin their hopes on the ability to improve crop yields and enhance industrial productivity through technological innovation. Pessimists point to diminishing resources, unchecked population growth, excessive militay spending, and the reluctance of rich countries to share their wealth and expertise with less fortunate nations. Government instability, endemic corruption, and wide swings in economic policy make the Third World's economic prospects seem even less auspicious in the 2000s.

b) The New Rich in Russia suddenly find themselves surrounded by a burgeoning service industry eager to cater to their every whim. The Gold’s Gym in Moscow, for example, is one of the busiest, most expensive, and most successful in the world. Many expatriate businessmen belong to it, but most of the members are Russians eager to pay $2000 or more a year to use its state-of-the art equipment while their drivers wait in their Mercedes outside. After the workout, people can relax at the juice bar with a $7 glass of apple juice.

Variant 3

  1. Translate into English.

  1. сукупний споживчий попит ( загальний обсяг попиту на товари і послуги споживчого призначення )

  1. більший дефіцит бюджету

  1. вилучити прибуток

  1. виробництво

  1. витягати прибуток

  1. грати життєво важливу роль

  1. група захисту

  1. економіка; народне господарство , економічна теорія, економічна наука

  1. економічна задача

  1. забезпечити споживача практично усім, чого він бажає й у чому відчуває потребу

2.Translate into Ukrainian.

    1. industrial and postindustrial (service- and information-based) free-market economies

    1. for-profit businesses

    1. distribution

    1. social service agencies

    1. consumption

    1. price theory or microeconomics

    1. prosperity and depression

    1. goods and services

    1. personal services

    1. foundations

3. Fill in the gaps with a vocabulary phrase that best fits the meaning of each sentence.

  1. Collective cooperatives and state-owned farms, holdovers from the Soviet period, continue to outnumber _________________________; private ownership is allowed, but lack of capital, social attitudes, and the high cost of fuel have discouraged it.

  2. Ukraine is the world's third largest ______________________and seventh largest producer of iron ore.

  3. Heavy industries such as metalworking, mechanical engineering, and machinery and chemicals manufacturing ____________________________sector.

  4. Light industries producing ________________such as household appliances are underdeveloped by Western standards.

  5. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukraine's industrial sector has been cut off from ___________________, and supplies from former republics are no longer easily accessible.

  6. To supply ________________, Ukraine must import 80 percent of its natural gas and 90 percent of its oil.

  7. Lacking the funds to purchase what it needs, however, Ukraine has had to ________________of these sources.

4. Make a literary translation into English.

a) Consumers try to spend their income in ways that give them as much pleasure as possible. As economists say, they maximize utility. For their part, entrepreneurs seek as much profit as they can extract from their operations.

The second field, macroeconomics, deals with modern explanations of national income and employment. Macroeconomics dates from the book, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (1935), by the British economist John Maynard Keynes. His explanation of prosperity and depression centers on the total or aggregate demand for goods and services by consumers, business investors, and governments. Because, according to Keynes, inadequate aggregate demand increases unemployment, the indicated cure is either more investment by businesses or more spending and consequently larger budget deficits by government.

b) The transition from a rigidly controlled planned economy to the freedom of the semi-open market made it all happen, of course. It has been described as the biggest giveaway in history: Nickel mines, defense factories, public works projects that were owned by the state suddenly became private in huge numbers. And in a desperate attempt to get businessmen to invest in the future of Russia—many of those industries were all but given away—sold at a fraction of their value to insiders.
    1. Write an essay to the topic :

The Economy of Ukraine

Current Economic Problems

Globalism and national economies

Taxation and standards of living

The economic growth of our region

The world economy: trends and tendencies
ЗМІСТ


Міністерство освіти і науки України 1

УДК 811.111. (075.8) 3

ПЕРЕДМОВА 4

UNIT 1 HIGHER EDUCATION 7

PART 1 DISCUSSION 7

Project 1 The Aims of Education 7

Project 2 The Financial Aspects of Getting Higher Education 13

PART 2 VOCABULARY EXTENSION 18

Essential Vocabulary 18

Vocabulary Activator 22

Additional vocabulary 25

PART 3 LANGUAGE IN CONTEXT 31

TEXT A 31

TEXT B 38

TEXT C 46

PART 4 DEVELOPING READING SKILLS 56

TEXT 1 ‘The Civil Rights Movement and Affirmative Action’ 56

TEXT 2 ‘The Education of Henry Adams’ 63

TEXT 3 ‘Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone’ 73

PART 5 TRANSLATION PRACTICE 87

PART 6 COMPREHENSION CHECK 102

UNIT 2 CAREER PROSPECTS 110

PART 1 DISCUSSION 110

Project 1 The Right Job for You 110

Project 2 Planning the On-Job Training. Role play 112

PART 2 VOCABULARY EXTENSION 117

Essential Vocabulary 117

Vocabulary Activator 122

Additional vocabulary 124

PART 3 LANGUAGE IN CONTEXT 130

TEXT A 130

TEXT B 134

TEXT C 140

PART 4 DEVELOPING READING SKILLS 147

TEXT 1 ‘ The Aging Boom ’ 147

TEXT 2 ‘Martin Eden’ 155

TEXT 3 ‘The Lawnmower Man’ 163

PART 5 TRANSLATION PRACTICE 174

PART 6 COMPREHENSION CHECK 190

UNIT 3 CURRENT ECONOMIC PROBLEMS 199

PART 1 DISCUSSION 199

Project 1 The Language of Statistics 199

Project 2 The Economic Systems 203

PART 2 VOCABULARY EXTENSION 208

Essential Vocabulary 208

Vocabulary Activator 214

Additional vocabulary 216

PART 3 LANGUAGE IN CONTEXT 218

TEXT A 218

TEXT B 228

TEXT C 236

PART 4 DEVELOPING READING SKILLS 244

TEXT 1 “The Government Should Not Subsidize Internet Access” 244

TEXT 2 ‘Russia’s New Rich’ 255

TEXT 3 ‘The Financier’ 265

PART 5 TRANSLATION PRACTICE 281

PART 6 COMPREHENSION CHECK 292



Лариса Миколаївна Лазаренко

Олена Євгеніївна Богатирьова
ПРАКТИЧНИЙ КУРС АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ МОВИ

(Англійською та українською мовами)
Навчальний посібник з практики усного та письмового мовлення для студентів 4 курса спеціальності “Переклад”. Частина 1

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